p.90, Stock market

The term bourse[note 1] is related to the 13th-century inn named “Huis ter Beurze” owned by Van der Beurze (nl) family in BrugesBelgium, where traders and foreign merchants from across Europe, especially the Italian Republics of GenoaFlorence and Venice, conducted business in the late medieval period.[1] The building, which was established by Robert van der Buerze as a hostelry, had operated from 1285.[2] Its managers became famous for offering judicious financial advice to the traders and merchants who frequented the building. This service became known as the “Beurze Purse” which is the basis of bourse, meaning an organised place of exchange. Eventually the building became solely a place for trading in commodities.

During the 18th century, the façade of the Huis ter Beurze was rebuilt with a wide frontage of pilasters. However, in 1947 it was restored to its original medieval appearance.[citation needed]

In the twelfth century, foreign exchange dealers in France were responsible for controlling and regulating the debts of agricultural communities on behalf of banks. These were actually the first brokers. They met on the Grand Bridge in Paris, the current Pont au Change. It takes its name from the forex brokers.[citation needed]

In the thirteenth century, the Lombard bankers were the first to share state claims in Pisa, Genoa and Florence. In 1409, the phenomenon was institutionalized by the creation of the Exchange Bruges. It was quickly followed by others, in Flanders and neighboring countries (Ghent and Amsterdam). It is still in Belgium and the first building designed to house a scholarship was built in Antwerp. The first scholarship organized in France was born in Lyon in 1540.[citation needed]

The first documented crash took place in 1636 in Holland.[3] The prices of tulip bulbs reaching excessively high levels, known as the Tulip mania. The price collapsed on October 1.

In the seventeenth century, the Dutch were the first to use the stock market to finance companies.[4] The first company to issue stocks and bonds was the Dutch East India Company, introduced in 1602.

The London Stock Exchange started operating and listing shares and bonds in 1688.[5]

In 1774, the Paris Stock Exchange (founded in 1724), say the courts, must now necessarily be shouted to improve the transparency of operations.[citation needed] In the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution enables rapid development of stock markets, driven by the significant capital requirements for finance industry and transport. Since the computer revolution of the 1970s, we are witnessing the dematerialization of securities traded on the stock exchange.

In 1971, the NASDAQ became the primary market quotes computer. In France, the dematerialization was effective from November 5, 1984.[citation needed]

The development of information technology during the late part of the 20th century led to a new type of electronic exchange that replaced the more traditional physical markets. This led to new definitions in financial regulations that recognised these new exchanges, such as the Multilateral trading facility in Europe and Alternative trading system in the United States. Regulators also started using the term trading venue to describe the wider definition which encompasses both traditional exchanges and electronic exchanges.

Image result for rembrandt group portraitsRembrandt: The Artist as Stage Director

radford.edu — this is a school in Virginia and I’ll try to get a line to them to let them know I’ve copied to use this, “The Artist as Stage Director” description, whether it’s Rembrandt or any other, that all the film- and life-directing comes from this same type of the “Jomon” culture people, they’ve been organizing for this Armageddon since before Rembrandt et al’s time. Maybe I’ll get over it and delete the link to themselves in case they might object to the link to me.

There’s an article at ny.curbed.com/2018/9/26, Wall-Street-New-York-City-History

from Wikipedia: In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted plots and residences in the colony.[12] Later, on behalf of the Dutch West India CompanyPeter Stuyvesant, using both African slaves[13] and white colonists, collaborated with the city government in the construction of a more substantial fortification, a strengthened 12-foot (4 m) wall.[14] In 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade.[15] The wall started at Pearl Street, which was the shoreline at that time, crossing the Indian path Broadway and ending at the other shoreline (today’s Trinity Place), where it took a turn south and ran along the shore until it ended at the old fort. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, and over time divided themselves into two classes—auctioneers and dealers.[16] Wall Street was also the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week.[17] The rampart was removed in 1699[10] and a new City Hall built at Wall and Nassau in 1700.

Slavery was introduced to Manhattan in 1626, but it was not until December 13, 1711, that the New York City Common Council made Wall Street the city’s first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Indians.[18][19] The slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Wall and Pearl Streets. It was a wooden structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years and could hold approximately 50 men. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person who was bought and sold there.[20]

In the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities.[21] The benefit was being in proximity to each other.[21] In 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement which was the origin of the New York Stock Exchange.[22] The idea of the agreement was to make the market more “structured” and “without the manipulative auctions”, with a commission structure.[16] Persons signing the agreement agreed to charge each other a standard commission rate; persons not signing could still participate but would be charged a higher commission for dealing.[16]

In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States’ first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30, 1789. This was also the location of the passing of the Bill Of RightsAlexander Hamilton, who was the first Treasury secretary and “architect of the early United States financial system,” is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, as is Robert Fulton famed for his steamboats.

Charlie Chaplin stands on Douglas Fairbanks’ shoulders during a Liberty bonds rally on Wall Street, April 1918. They are at the foot of George Washington’s statue in front of the Sub-Treasury (now Federal Hall National Memorial). Underwood & Underwood, The New York Times photo archive, via their online store. This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923.

(They formed the United Artists company.)